Main Types and Causes of Pollution Full Explain

Published by Ubaid Khan on

Main Types and Causes of Pollution. Construction, transportation and manufacturing activities not only utilize the natural resources but also produce a lot of the wastages which leads pollution. This pollution can be air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution ocean pollution, global warming and acid raining which is big causes of serious diseases. Also, cheap treating or using improper methods can lead pollution of rivers and environmental degradation losing of crops and health related diseases. The lack of crops can create an increase in carbon dioxide which is a serious issue for our environment.

In this tutorial, I will explain each type of pollution and their causes one by one.

Main Types and Causes of Pollution Full Explain. Air pollution causes, water pollution causes, soil pollution causes.

Air Pollution

This type of pollution is come from industrial pollution, mostly in chemical industries wastages and other domestic activities. Industries, power plant, mining, building construction use fossil fuels and its usage is increasing day by day which is a huge factor of air pollution. Here the causes of air pollutions are.

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Main Causes of Air Pollution

Fly Ash

When the product of coal is burning in thermal power plants fly ash are ejected. Which leads air and even water pollution, and perhaps create heavy metal pollution in water bodies.  Fly ash has a negative impact on vegetation through its deposition on soil or directly on deposition on leaf surfaces. It is used for landfill material and manufacturing bricks.

Particulate pollutants

Particulate matter is those matter which is suspended in the air. It’s actually dust and smoke which is out from industrial chimneys. The diameter of each particle is very small approximately 0.001 to 500 µm.

The gravitational force is zero because of the very minor weight, and these particles are freely moving in the air from one place to another. But the particles which have the diameter greater than 10 µm settle down. The sources of this kind of pollution are power plant, construction activities, vehicles, industry chimneys, oil refinery, etc.

Burning of Fossil Fuels

Sulfur dioxide is one of the major sources of air pollution and it is produced through the chemical combination of fossil fuels like coal and factory compatible. Also, the pollution-emitting form, cheap vehicles, and trucks create a negative effect on the environment.


But we can’t eliminate them from our society because we rely on them to fulfill the needs of transportation. To protect from these types of pollution we should use it to fulfill the needs only, also not use a vehicle which is more cause of the pollution I mean poor vehicles. Another major pollutant which is emitted from vehicles is Carbon Monoxides along with Nitrogen Oxide, which is emitted from both natural and manmade processes.

Agricultural Activities

From the agriculture-related activities, most pollution can result from ammonia NH3 which is the most dangerous gases in the environment.

Exhaust From Factories And Industries 

Wastages from the chemical industries, smokes form chimneys and manufacturing industries release an immense amount of hydrocarbons, carbon mono oxide and other organic compounds which leads depleting the quality of air.

Mining Operations

This is the process wherein minerals underneath the earth are take-out using large machines and equipment. During this process, the chemicals and dust are emitted to the environment which creates huge pollution. Also, this is unsafe for workers and nearby resident.

Water Pollution

This types of pollution are the most severe problem for environmental and can leads to very serious diseases. Water pollution is produced by human activities such as industrial wastages, agriculture and domestic activates. Agriculture activities involve using of excess amount of fertilizers and pesticides cause water pollution.


Also, industrial discharges with toxic substances and sewages with human and animals wastages pollute our water. There are some natural sources of pollutions of water theses are soil erosion, leakage of minerals from rocks and decomposing of organic matter. Seas, rivers, oceans and ground waters sources may be polluted by a point or non-point sources.

Main Causes of Water Pollution

The main causes of water pollution are pesticides such as DDT is used in agriculture and contaminate water surfaces. And from this level, it takes pesticides from water and gets in the food chain.

Metals such as Zinc, Copper, Mercury, and cadmium in industrial wastewater badly affect human and other animals.  Water pollution create severe health diseases, such as drinking of arsenic-polluted water can make buildup arsenic in the body parts in blood, nails, hairs causing skin lesions, dry and thickness of skin and eventually skin cancer.

Mercury polluted water causes Minamata disease in human and dropsy in water animals.

Also leakages from ships, oil tankers, rigs in oceans and pipelines. The happening of the accident at oil tankers spread a lot of oil in seas which kills marine birds and badly affect other marine life and beaches.

Thermal Pollution

Maximum Industries have power plants such as chemical and nuclear, thermal and most other industries. They use about 30% of abstracted water for cooling purpose and then the hot water which results from this process discharge into rivers, oceans, and streams.


The releasing of hot water perhaps increase the river, oceans water temperature above the ambient water temperature and this is called thermal pollution. The thermal pollution increases the temperature of the water and decreases the dissolved oxygen in the water which badly affects the life of aquatic.


The aquatic organism can be alive on a uniform steady temperature of water any temperature changing in water can affect badly water plants and animals. So the releasing of the Hot water from the industries power plants adversely affects aquatic creatures.

The aquatic organism in the hot environment live hardly, the summer months make water hot and organism of waters live dangerously. Only one slight deviation I temperature can save the life of these organisms. Water pollution has a negative impact on fish’s life causing decrease their swimming efficiency.

There are several ways to reducing this types of pollution, one way is to store released hot water in cooling ponds, and release it before its temperature down, and this way can save us from water pollution drastically.

Soil Pollution

Polluted water as discussed in the above portion can also pollute the soil.  Solid waste is a mixture of plastics, sewage, glass, cloth metal, and organic matter, sewage sludge, building debris, produced from households, commercial and industries establishments add to soil pollution.

The major sources of the soil pollutions are Fly ash, steel and iron slag, industrial and medical wastes are disposed on the land.

Additionally, the fertilizers and pesticides which are used for agriculture growth reach the soil and leads soil pollutions. Acid rain can also increase soil pollutions.

Causes of Soil Pollutions

Plastic Bags

Plastic bags which are made from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is particularly immortal can cause a severe environmental hazard. The waste foods and vegetable are thrown on lands which create the soil pollutions.

Plastic is non-biodegradable and burning of plastic releases highly toxic and poisonous gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, phosgene, and other chlorinated compounds.

Industrial Sources

Industrial wastes like fly ash, chemical residues, nuclear and metallic wastes. These wastes when releasing for industries find their ways into the soil and creates severe health hazards such as cancer.

Agricultural Sources

The chemicals which are used in agriculture activities such as fertilizers and pesticides pollute the soil. All the crops rely on these chemicals but using the fertilizers in excess amount can cause eutrophication in water bodies. On the other hands, the pastises are very toxic chemicals which affect humans and animals, causing severe health problems.

Ubaid Khan

hello friends, we are teh team of engineers and blogging is our passion. our team consists of Tariq Naveed, Izhar, and Ubaid